Iodine, a trace element found naturally in certain foods, is added to some types of salt and can also be taken as a dietary supplement. It is a crucial component of thyroid hormones, namely thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These hormones play a vital role in regulating various biochemical reactions, such as protein synthesis and enzymatic activity, and are essential for proper metabolic function. Additionally, during fetal and infant development, thyroid hormones are necessary for the healthy growth of the skeletal and central nervous systems .
The primary regulator of thyroid function is thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), also known as thyrotropin. This hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland and controls the production and release of thyroid hormones, thereby maintaining the balance between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in the body [. TSH stimulates the uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland and facilitates the synthesis and release of T3 and T4. When iodine levels are inadequate, TSH levels remain elevated, leading to the enlargement of the thyroid gland known as goiter. This enlargement is the body’s way of attempting to capture more iodine from the bloodstream to produce thyroid hormones. Iodine may also serve other physiological functions, such as supporting immune response and potentially benefiting conditions like mammary dysplasia and fibrocystic breast disease.
The iodine content in crops is influenced by the iodine levels present in the earth’s soils. In regions where iodine-deficient soils are common, individuals who primarily consume locally grown food are at a higher risk of iodine deficiency. To combat this issue, many countries have implemented salt iodization programs, which have significantly reduced the prevalence of iodine deficiency worldwide.
Iodine can be found in various chemical forms, including sodium and potassium salts, inorganic iodine (I2), iodate, and iodide (the reduced form of iodine). Iodine is rarely found in its elemental form; instead, it exists as a salt, referred to as iodide. Iodide is rapidly and almost completely absorbed in the stomach and duodenum. Iodate is converted to iodide in the gastrointestinal tract before being absorbed. Once iodide enters the bloodstream, the thyroid gland concentrates it in appropriate amounts for thyroid hormone synthesis, while the majority of the remaining iodine is excreted in the urine. In a healthy adult with sufficient iodine levels, approximately 15–20 mg of iodine is present, with about 70%–80% of it stored in the thyroid gland.
Median urinary iodine concentrations of 100–199 mcg/L in children and adults, 150–249 mcg/L in pregnant women, and >100 mcg/L in lactating women indicate adequate iodine intake . Levels below 100 mcg/L in children and non-pregnant adults suggest insufficient iodine intake, although iodine deficiency is classified as severe when urinary iodine levels drop below 20 mcg/L.
Recommended intake guidelines for iodine and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) established by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences). DRIs consist of reference values used to plan and evaluate nutrient intakes for healthy individuals, with variations based on age and gender. The following are included in the DRIs:
- Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): The average daily intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of almost all (97%–98%) healthy individuals. It is commonly used to design nutritionally balanced diets for individuals.
- Adequate Intake (AI): The intake level assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy when there is insufficient evidence to establish an RDA.
- Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): The average daily intake level estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals. It is typically used to assess nutrient intake for groups of people and plan nutritionally balanced diets. It can also be used for individual assessments.
- Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): The maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects.
Products with iodine:
Oyster+ SuperBlend Capsules 120 Caps
Pete Evans HEAL Organic Seaweed capsules 90 Caps
Lifestream Natural Calcium Bone and Teeth Health 60VC
Herbs of Gold Pregnancy Plus 1-2-3 60 VC
Henry Blooms Intellivit Womens Multivitamin 60 tabs
Henry Blooms Super Kelly 75 vc
Cell Squared Products:
Cell Squared Beef Heart
Size: 160 capsules
Cell Squared Grass fed Beef Organs Powder 180g
Cell Squared Beef liver
Size: 160 capsules
Cell Squared Beef liver Powder – 180g
Cell Squared Beef Kidney
Size: 160 capsules
Cell Squared Organic Grass-Fed Beef Liver & Spleen Capsules
Size: 160 Capsules
NXGEN Organic Beef Liver Capsules 500MG 180 Capsules
Size: 180 capsules
NXZEN Organic Beef Kidney Capsules 500mg 160 capsules
NXGEN Organic Beef Heart Capsules 500mg 160 capsules
NXGEN Grass Fed Beef Organs Capsules 500mg 160 capsules
NexGen Grass fed Beef Thyroid 500mg 160 capsules
Nxgen Grass Fed Beef Thymus Capsules 160 Capsules